I repaired the Budaschnozzle hot-end over the weekend and bolted the SnakeBite extruder to it and then to MegaMax and tested it last night. There’s plenty of tuning to do, but the first print looks promising:
After building the box for MegaMax I decided to try a big print. The blue 3 face cup is 130mm tall and took a little over 15 hours to print. No delamination! It’s a miracle the extruder kept working!
Well, OK, not the whole enclosure, just the parts that hold it together.
MegaMax can print big stuff but he’s had problems with large prints delaminating. The answer seems to be enclosing the printer to keep the prints warm while printing. I designed this box and 3D printable parts to hold it together so that I can take the box apart easily to work on MegaMax or move him to other locations and put it back together when I’m done. The box is 38″ D x 28″ H x 32″ W.
The box is made of 1″ PIR foam with corners suitably notched to accommodate the printed parts. MegaMax has a 450 Watt heater in the printbed so the box gets super-toasty inside. I suspect it gets a little too toasty but haven’t made any measurements yet. I’ll soon be moving the electronics out of the box. I didn’t do anything to seal the seams in the box because it doesn’t seem to be necessary. I did tape the edges of some of the foam boards with clear packing tape to prevent damage.
Design and stl files are available at http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:269586
One of the biggest problems with FDM 3D printing is hot-end jamming. There seem to be a lot of causes, most of which are not readily identifiable when a jam occurs. One thing I have found is that after a hot-end jam I can usually grab the filament and manually push it and get it flowing through the hot-end again, though it is too late to save the failed print. The most common means of driving the filament into the hot-end is to pinch the filament between a gear and a bearing and have a motor drive the gear, either directly (with 1.75mm filament) or via a gear reduction/torque multiplier arrangement (3mm filament). When the hot end jams, the large force applied by the gear over the small area of the filament that is pinched between the gear and bearing usually chews a divot in the filament thus destroying the grip.
A couple weeks ago I started designing a 3mm filament extruder for 3D printing. My hope is that this extruder will provide sufficient force on the filament to prevent hot-end jamming from ruining prints. My design uses two counter-rotating 6-32 nuts twisting on the filament (like the way your hands twist in opposite directions when you give a “snakebite” to your friend) to drive it into the hot-end. One is a normal, right-hand threaded nut, the other is left-hand threaded. When the nuts turn in opposite directions, the torque that would try to twist the filament is cancelled while moving the filament forward and reverse without twisting.
The motor has to turn about 1.26 times to move 1mm of filament so there is a huge torque to axial force conversion. The gear diameter is about 30mm. That 1.26 rev moves the gear about 119mm at its perimeter. That means there is about a 119:1 increase (ignoring losses in the gears, bearings, and nuts) in the force at the filament compared to the force at the gear. That force is applied over a larger area of the filament than the usual pinch arrangement, so it is less likely (I hope!) to carve the filament and lose grip. I tried stopping the filament by grabbing it with my fingers and holding as tightly as I could but it didn’t even slow down.
The firmware in the printer has to be tweaked so that it knows exactly how many steps of the motor are required to drive 1mm of filament. The formula is:
32 rev/ 1 inch X 1 inch /25.4 mm X 200 steps/1 rev X 16 microsteps/1 step = 4031.496 microsteps/mm
For initial tests I just input 4031.5 using the rotary encoder on the LCD interface to the RAMPS board in MegaMax.
Here are the parts that I used:
Left hand threaded tap: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B006YITGY8
5mm brass tubing: http://www.ebay.com/itm/360828686174
5x16x5mm (625Z) bearings: http://www.ebay.com/itm/321062568303
I also used a NEMA-17 motor from a QU-BD extruder.
You can DL the STL files for the printed parts here: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:261037
Test printing will start in the next day or so and I will post another video showing success or failure.
Sometimes solving one problem creates a few new ones! As part of the Laser Cutter Room Reconfiguration, the exhaust system got an upgrade. A new, bigger, more powerful fan meant we needed a new way to control it. The previous system (Version 4.0) was a simple on/off switch. That just wasn’t going to cut it for this industrial grade blower. Tom G., Tony W., myself and others spent the holidays installing this new two-horsepower beast above the ceiling in the Craft Lab. Once it was hung from the roof joists with care, Tom got to work ducting it over to the Laser Cutter Room. Finally, when all the heavy lifting had been done and the motor drive had been wired up, all we needed was an enclosure for the switch.
The request went out on the message board. Pete P., Shane T., and I all expressed interest, but life got in the way and it soon became a matter of whomever got to it first would be the one to make it. I ended up devoting the better part of last weekend to this project (much more time than I anticipated) but I can honestly say I’m pretty happy with the result.
The goal was fairly straight-forward: make an enclosure for the switch Tom had already provided. It was a color-coded, 4-button, mechanical switch that had been wired to provide four settings: OFF, LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH. The more laser cutters in use, the more air you’d need and the higher the setting you should choose. There’s four duct connections available for the three laser cutters we currently have.
There’s a saying: “Better is the enemy of done.” Truer words have never been spoken in a makerspace.
At first I wanted to build the enclosure out of acrylic. Then I remembered this awesome plastic bending technique that Tony W. and some others told me about. I found a video on the Tested website and got inspired. (If you don’t know about Tested, please go check it out. You’ll thank me later.) Unfortunately, my bends kept breaking and melting through, so after a few hours of tinkering I moved on.
Thankfully, we have a small cache of plastic and metal project enclosures on our our Hack Rack. I managed to find a clear plastic, vandal-proof thermostat guard. It looked workable.
I tried laser cutting it, but the moment I saw the plastic yellow and smoke, I knew there was probably some nasty, toxic stuff in it, so I moved to the CNC router. About an hour later I had my holes cut.
Then came the wiring. Up until this point I had been focused on the control box itself. Now I wanted to add a light!
No, two lights! Yeah!
One light to tell you when everything was off, and another that lit whenever the fan was in use. People could look at the lights from outside the room and instantly know if the fan had been left on. (It should be noted that the new fan, despite being twice as powerful than our last, is actually much quieter. Tom added a homemade muffler to the inlet of the blower and shrouded the whole contraption in 3″ fiberglass batt insulation. The best way to know if the fan is running is to open a slide gate damper and hear air being sucked in.)
OK, I totally got this.
Draw myself a ladder diagram and get out the wire connectors… Remember that I need to isolate the signals from each other so any button doesn’t call for 100% fan… A few more relays… Some testing… and done!
Wait a second… the motor drive doesn’t have a ground for the control signal.
Guess I can’t power it from the drive. I’ll just tie into the drive’s ground. Nope, that didn’t work.
I’ll read the motor drive manual. OK, it has a set of “run status” contacts I can monitor.
….and they’re putting out a steady 0.4 volts DC. That’s enough to light up a single LED! …except, no. It’s not lighting. Doesn’t seem to be any real current.
I’ll just use a transistor! That’s the whole point of a transistor!
….well nothing I tried worked.
I’ll build a voltage multiplier circuit!
….and this isn’t working either.
On Day 3 of this “little project” Ron B. made a comment about using a pressure switch of some kind.
We have a Hack Rack full of junk and I know there’s this old bunch of gas furnace parts. It couldn’t be that easy…
Yeah. So, three days (and a few frustrating epiphanies) later, this all came together. Press the beige button, get some air. Press the other buttons, get some more air. Any time there’s suction, the red light comes on. The indicator light is powered by its own 24 volt DC wall pack. The pressure switch has both normally open (N.O.) and normally closed (N.C.) contacts so it would be totally feasible to add another light at some point. The controller could display “OFF” or “SAFE” or whatever as well as “ON” or “FAN IN USE” or whatever. The text is just a red piece of paper with words printed on it, then holes laser-cut out to fit. We can trade it out with different words or graphics if we ever feel the need. I was just glad to have it done, so I called it. Better is the enemy of done, indeed.
You can learn more about the evolution of our laser cutter venting system on our wiki!
After a long series of manipulations, the CT scan derived face was successfully used to make a pencil holder (of all things!). It is about 100mm high and took about 9 hours to print. You can find files that you can use to make your own mash-ups of my face on thingiverse: http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:203856
Today was spent researching all the manipulations involved in getting a CT scan into printable form and I managed to get a print out of it. The process starts with DeVide where the dicom data from the CT scan is processed using a dual threshold, decimation filter, and stl writer. The stl file contains a lot of unwanted stuff, in this case, soft tissues inside my head that add triangles but won’t be seen in the print, so those are removed by applying ambient occlusion followed by selecting and deleting vertices by “quality” (which will be very low values for vertices on the interior of the object). This process invariably blows small holes in the desired surface, so you apply a “close holes” filter to fix that (which closed up the nostrils very nicely). Next you open the stl file in netfabb and rotate and clip unwanted external stuff and apply repairs as necessary. Finally, drag it into slicer and scale it. slice and print.
While investigating software to extract bone data from CT scans and turn it into 3D printable STL files, I played with a CT scan of my own head that was used to treatment plan orthodontics. I have been using DeVide to process the data and finding it is not only easy to use, but a lot of fun!
The animated gif was made by sweeping the lower threshold of a dual threshold module from -800 to 900 in steps of 100 with the upper threshold fixed at 1400. The effect is to strip away the lower density tissues leaving only dense bone at the end of the sweep. I saved the result of each run as a png file then converted to an animated gif using an on-line service.
In an effort to make the lighting control system more user-friendly, the original board-mounted switches have been replaced with a laser-cut zone map! Instead of looking up which zone number corresponds to a particular bank of lights, each location is now identified by a green LED pushbutton. You can read more about the lighting control system and how it’s been evolving on our wiki: http://wiki.milwaukeemakerspace.org/projects/mmlc
As someone who has gone to GenCon quite a few years and knows several of the GMs of major events, I’ve started getting asked to make props… This year I have decided to expand my experiences in molding and casting in order to make one of the props. The prop requested was a “Bracer that looks like it is made of Amber – part of the shell of an insect”. Thankfully I was afforded quite a bit of creative leeway beyond that.
In the past I have used Smooth-on products, but one of the members of the Makerspace mentioned they were a distributor for Alumilite, so I thought I would give them a try. This was my first experience with most of the Alumilite products.
I ordered the following supplies:
Other items I used:
3” Diameter PVC Pipe – Approximately 18” long
3” Diameter Hose Clamp
Disposable Mixing Containers
Steel Wire (to hold the mold together)
I wanted to make a “generic” bracer that would fit either arm, not a right or left arm bracer, so I didn’t want to do a life cast of my arm first – it would be too specific. Instead I picked up a piece of 3” pvc pipe, cut a section out of most of it (leaving a part connected) and then used a hose clamp to tighten the open end down. It turned into a really good stand-in for a human arm. The shape is close enough that it is recognizable, but is not left or right arm specific. (Note that the screws in the picture were added at a later stage)
Once I had the basic form for the arm, I used the synthetic clay to create the shape of the bracer. I was going for an organic look, so I wanted curves and no sharp edges. The biggest challenge I had was trying to smooth out the sculpt. I still need to figure out the right technique. Sadly, I forgot to take pictures of the sculpted bracer.
Once I had the sculpture complete, I added some screws around the edges as alignment points. I was careful to make sure the heads were close to the PVC so they would not get stuck in the molding material. Then I got to try my first new material – the Mold Putty. I really liked the idea of it – take two parts, hand-mix, then just push it onto the original. It essentially worked exactly that way. I thought the mixed consistency was almost perfect for my application. Unfortunately, the biggest difficulty is being sure not to trap air in it – particularly when placing a second mixed batch next to an already placed batch. I ended up with some imperfections in the final mold because of this. Would I use it again? Yes, but I think I may also try other approaches – either a box and pourable rubber, or brush-on rubber.
Given the way I wanted to cast the bracer – standing vertically – I wanted to make sure that I was able to hold the rubber mold to the arm form well. So, using the plaster bandages, I made a two-part “mother mold” for the rubber mold. First, I coated everything with Vaseline as a release agent, then I covered half of the arm piece with plaster bandaging, making sure the edges were particularly strong, and that the top edge, where I would be creating the second half of the mold, was also quite smooth. After the first half of the mother mold cured, I then coated the edge of the plaster with Vaseline to make sure the other half would not stick to the first half. Once I was done placing the Vaseline, I then coated the other half with plaster bandages.
Once all of the plaster dried, I used a sharpie and drew lines across the edges of the plaster. These lines are so that I could realign them easily after I took the mold apart to remove the original sculpt.
After I removed the original sculpt, I realized I forgot something major… A way to get the resin into the mold. Oops! After a bit of thought, I decided the easiest way to get the resin in would be to drill some holes through the PVC pipe and pour it in that way. Ideally, I would have designed pour holes and vent holes into the original design of the sculpt. Something to remember for the next one! In order to try to control the fluid a bit better, I used straws to extend the holes out. Bendy straws would have been good – I’m not sure how effective straight straws were.
Using the volume of clay from the original sculpt, I did a rough guess at how much resin would be needed to fill the mold (~12oz). I measured out 6oz of each of the two parts, added one drop of red and six drops of yellow to one of them, then mixed it. I used a syringe to suck up the mixed resin and transfer it into the mold. It worked quite well, although it was a bit disconcerting because of the number of bubbles that were exposed during the suction process. Thankfully, as soon as the resin reached normal pressure the bubbles disappeared.
The resin takes 24 hours to cure. 24 hours wondering if it turned out.
And after that full day of waiting, I de-molded it. Quite the pleasant surprise! I think it may have slightly too much red, so I’ll have to correct that for my next iteration. I’m still debating about sanding and buffing it in order to get it to be more glass-like.
September 27-28 at Wisconsin State Fair Park, the same weekend as Harvest Fair. Admission is free. Maker Faire Milwaukee's Call for Makers is now open.
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